Ancestral mountains

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After the mountains it lifted had been largely eroded away, their stubs and their detritus, much of which had turned into sedimentary rock, became involved in the Acadian Orogeny; and when the Acadian Orogeny was long gone by, its mountain stubs and lithified debris were caught up in the Alleghenian Orogeny, which drove into the sky still another massif, the ruins of which lay all about us now. In such manner had each of the orogenies of the Appalachians cannibalized the products of previous pulses, and now we were left with this old mountain range, by weather almost wholly destroyed, but nonetheless flexplek huren amsterdam zuidas containing in a traceable and unarguable way the rock of its ancestral mountains. She said the Delaware Water Gap, with its hard quartzites, represented action from the heart of the story, debris from the Taconic Orogeny: boulders, pebbles, sands, and silts carried down from bald mountains by the rapids of big braided rivers-a runoff unimpeded by vegetation, when not so much as one green leaf existed in the terrestrial world. Long before the Taconic mountain-building pulse was felt, the scene was very different. A subdued continent, consisting of what is now the basement rock of North America, stood low with quiet streams, collecting on its margins clean accumulations of sand. One can infer the flat landscape, the slow rivers, the white beaches, in the rock that remains from those Cambrian sands. Sea level, never constant, moved generally upward all through Cambrian time. The flexplek huren hilversum water advanced upon the continent at an average rate of ten miles every million years, spreading across the craton successive coastal sands. Potsdam sandstone. Antietam sandstone. Waynesboro sand stone. Eau Claire sandstone. There were fifty-four million years in the long tectonic quiet of Cambrian time, 544 to 490 million years before the present. By the end of the Cambrian and the beginning of the Ordovician, the ocean had spread its great bays upon the continents to an extent that has not been equalled in five hundred million years, with the possible exception of the highest Cretaceous seas. No one knows why. There is a fixed amount of water in the world. It can rain and run, evaporate, freeze, sit in deep cold pools on abyssal plains, but it cannot leave the earth. When large amounts of it collect as ice upon the continents, the level of the sea drastically goes down. In much of Cambra-Ordovician time, glaciation was absent from the world, and almost all water was in a fluid state. But that alone will not explain the signal height of the sea. In most of the known history of the earth, glacial ice has actually been insignificant.

Williamsburg Bridge

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“Fortunately, my parents were not religious. I would have thought these people would have moved out of here long ago. Chassidic Jews are not all poor, I promise you. Their houses may not look like much, but you should see them inside. They’re diamond cutters. They handle money. And they’re still here. People are wrong. They are wrong in what they have told me.” We went out of the noon sun into deep shade under the Williamsburg Bridge, whose immense stone piers and vaulting arches seemed Egyptian. She had played handball under there when she was a girl. ‘There were no tennis courts in this part of the world, let me tell you.” When the boys went off to swim in the river, she went back to Berry Street. “Me? In the river? Not me. The boys swam nude.” In the flexplek huren amsterdam wtc worst parts of summer, when the air was heavy and the streets were soft, Anita went up onto the bridge, climbing to a high point over the river, where there was always a breeze. Seven, eight years old, she sat on the pedestrian walk, with her feet dangling, and looked down into the Brooklyn Navy Yard. The Second World War was in full momentum. U.S.S. Missouri, U.S.S. Bennington, U.S.S. Kearsarge-she saw keels going down and watched battleships and carriers grow. It was a remarkable form of entertainment, but static. Increasingly, she wondered what lay beyond the bridge. One day, she got up the courage to walk all the way across. She set foot on Manhattan and immediately retreated. “I wanted to go up Delancey Street, but I was too scared.” Next time, she went up Delancey Street three blocks before she turned around and hurried home. In this manner, through time, she expanded her horizons. In the flexplek huren dordrecht main, she just looked, but sometimes she had a little money and went into Manhattan stores. About the only money she ever had she earned returning bottles for neighbors, who gave her a percentage of the deposit. Her idea of exceptional affluence was a family that could afford fresh flowers. Her mother was a secretary whose income covered a great deal less than the family’s needs. Her father was a trucker (“with a scar on his face that would make you think twice”), and his back had been broken in an accident.

Geologic theory

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As a small boy, he often went into oil fields with his father, whose assignments changed many times-Oklahoma City, Hutchinson, Great Bend, Midland, Hobbs, Casper. As a teen-ager, Deffeyes played the French horn in the Casper Civic Symphony. He debated on the high-school team. He became-as he has remained-a forensic marvel, the final syllables of his participles and gerunds ringing like Buddha’s gongs. In the way that others collected stamps, he collected rocks. For counsel, he took his specimens to the geologists in town, of whom there were plenty, including Paul Walton, who in i948 had suggested to J. Paul Getty that he go to Kuwait. High-school summers, Deffeyes worked as an assistant shooter with seismic crews and as a roustabout maintaining wells. When he finished graduate school and moved on to Houston with Shell, he was ignorant not only of the imminent revolution in geologic theory but also of the approaching atrophy in successful exploration for oil. M. King Hubbert, an flexplek huren amsterdam zuidas outstanding geological geophysicist, was with Shell at the time, and Deffeyes had only settled in when Hubbert happened to predict (with amazing accuracy) the approaching date when more oil would be coming out of American ground than geologists would be discovering. He predicted the energy crisis that would inevitably follow. When Deffeyes saw Hubbert’s evanescing figures, he saw disappearing with them what had looked to be his most productive years. He resigned from Shell to go into teaching and was soon on the faculty at Oregon State, where he set himself up as a chemical oceanographer, because the ocean was where things were happening. The university had bought from the government a small ship left over from the Second World War and had converted it for oceanographic research. ‘Working for an oil company had suddenly become like working for a railroad-a dying industry. Now in this new field new equipment was being flexplek huren hilversum improvised, and the problems were the same as they were in the oil fields when I was a kid. In the ocean, we used bottom-hole pressure gauges and other oil-field equipment. I could feel the same sort of excitement I had felt years before in the oil fields, and with the same sorts of people-roustabouts and roughnecks-in the crew.” Unfortunately, Deffeyes had a signal defect as an oceanographer. He got terribly seasick. His enthusiasm grew moist, and he began to contrive to remain ashore.

The hunters

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“Now we’re both believers,” said one of the hunters. “And I don’t ever want to see another one. We’re pretty good-sized men and ain’t scared of nothing except for snakes and now flying saucers.” After the small sphere disappeared, the large one rapidly faded and also disappeared. Deffeyes and I were left on the roadside among the starlighted eyes of dark and motionless cattle. “Copernicus took the world out of the center of the universe,” he said. “Hutton took us out of a special place somewhere near the beginning of things and left us awash in the middle of the zakelijke energie immensity of time. An extraterrestrial civilization could show us where we are with regard to the creation of life.”
We also went to Jersey Valley, between the Fish Creek Mountains and the Tobin Range, where Deffeyes had once spent a couple of field seasons collecting data for his doctoral thesis. He had lived in a tent in the oven weather, and had chugalugged water in quart draughts while examining the rising mountains and the sediments the mountains had shed. The thick welded tuff of the Oligocene catastrophe, having been the regional surface when the faulting started, was tl1e first mate1ial to break into grains that washed and rolled downhill. When erosion wore through the tuff and into the older rock below, it sent the zakelijke energie vergelijken older rock also in fragments to the basins. Reading up through a basin was like reading down through a range. Deffe yes had locally described tl1is record, and now he wished to relate its timing to the development of the province as a whole. Forty miles off the interstate and with a lot of dust settling behind, he paused on the brow of a small hill at the head of Jersey Valley. It was intimate, compared with others in the Basin and Range. For perhaps twenty miles, it ran on south between snowcovered mountains and was filled with a delirium of sage. Deffeyes let out a cowboy yell.

Humanity’s presence

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They often liken humanity’s presence on earth to a brief visitation from elsewhere in space, its luminous, explosive characteristics consisting not merely of the burst of population in the twentieth century but of the whole residence of people on earth-a single detonation, resembling nothing so much as a nuclear implosion with its successive neutron generations, whole generations following one another once every hundred-millionth of a second, temperatures building up into the millions of zakelijke energie degrees and shipping atoms until bare nuclei are wandering in electron seas, pressures building up to a hundred million atmospheres, the core expanding at five million miles an hour, expanding in a way that is quite different from all else in the universe, unless there are others who also make bombs. The human consciousness may have begun to leap and boil some sunny day in the Pleistocene, but the race by and large has
retained the essence of its animal sense of time. People think in five generations-two ahead, two behind-with heavy concentration on the one in the middle. Possibly that is tragic, and possibly there is no choice. The human mind may not have evolved enough to be able to comprehend deep time. It may zakelijke energie vergelijken only be able to measure it. At least, that is what geologists wonder sometimes, and they have imparted the questions to me. They wonder to what extent they truly sense the passage of millions of years. They wonder to what extent it is possible to absorb a set of facts and move with them, in a sensory manner, beyond the recording intellect and into the abyssal eons. Primordial inhibition may stand in the way. On the geologic time scale, a human lifetime is reduced to a brevity that is too inhibiting to think about. The mind blocks the information. Geologists, dealing always with deep time, find that it seeps into their beings and affects them in various ways. They see the unbelievable swiftness with which one evolving species on the earth has learned to reach into the dirt of some tropical island and fling 7 4 7s into the sky. They see the thin band in which are the all but indiscernible stratifications of Cro-Magnon, Moses, Leonardo, and now. Seeing a race unaware of its own instantaneousness in time, they can reel off all the species that have come and gone, with emphasis on those that have specialized themselves to death.

Six thousand feet

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If they were a lot deeper than their width-if the temperature gradient were different and the cold brittle zone went down, say, five times the surface width-the blocks would not have mechanical freedom. They could not tilt enough to make these mountains. So I suspect the blocks are shallow-about as deep as they are wide. Eaithquake history supports this. Only shallow earthquakes have been recorded in the Basin and Range. At the western edge of Death Valley, there are great convex mountain faces that are called turtlebacks. To me they are more suggestive of whales. You look at them and you see that zakelijke energie they were once plastically deformed. I think the mountains have tilted up enough there to be giving us a peek at tl1e original bottom of a block. Death Valley is below sea level. I would bet that if we could scrape away six thousand feet of gravel from these mile-high basins up here what we would see at the base of these mountains would look like the edge of Death Valley. I haven’t published this hypothesis. I think it sounds right. I haven’t done any field work in Death Valley. I was just lucky enough to be there in ig6i with the guy who first mapped the geology. I have been lucky all through the years to work in the Basin and Range. The Basin and Range impresses me in terms of geology as does no other place in North America. It’s not at all easy, anywhere in the province, to say just what happened and when. Range after range-it is mysterious to me. A lot of geology is mysterious to me.”
Interstate 80, in its complete traverse of the North American continent, goes through zakelijke energie vergelijken much open space and three tunnels. As it happens, one tunnel passes through young rock, another through middle-aged rock, and the third through rock that is fairly old, at least with respect to the rock now on earth which has not long since been recycled. At Green River, Wyoming, the road goes under a remnant of the bed of a good-sized Cenozoic lake. The tunnel through Yerba Buena Island, in San Francisco Bay, is in sandstones and shales of the Mesozoic. And in Carlin Canyon, in Nevada, the road makes a neat pair of holes in Paleozoic rock.

Supreme over all is silence

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Supreme over all is silence. Discounting the cry of the occasional bird, the wailing of a pack of coyotes, silence-a great spatial silence-is pure in the Basin and Range. It is a soundless immensity with mountains in it. You stand, as we do now, and look up at a high mountain front, and turn your head and look fifty miles down the valley, and there is utter silence. It is the silence of the winter forests of the Yukon, here carried high to the ridgelines of the ranges. “It is a soul-shattering silence,” the physicist Freeman Dyson wrote of southern Nevada in Disturbing the Universe. “You hold your breath and hear absolutely nothing. No rustling of leaves in the wind, no rumbling of distant traffic, no chatter of birds or insects or children. You are alone with God in that silence. There in the white flat silence I began for the first  zakelijke energie vergelijken time to feel a slight sense of shame for what we were proposing to do. Did we really intend to invade this silence with our trucks and bulldozers and after a few years leave it a radioactive junkyard?” What Deffeyes finds pleasant here in Pleasant Valley is the aromatic sage. Deffeyes grew up all over the West, his father a petroleum engineer, and he says without apparent irony that the smell of sagebrush is one of two odors that will unfailingly bring upon him an attack of nostalgia, the other being the scent of an oil refinery. Flash floods have caused boulders the size of human heads to come tumbling off the range. With alluvial materials of finer size, they have piled up in fans at the edge of the basin. (“The cloudburst is the dominant sculptor here.”) The fans are unconsolidated. In time zakelijke energie to come, they will pile up to such enormous thicknesses that they will sink deep and be heated and compressed to form conglomerate. Erosion, which provides the material to build the fans, is tearing down the mountains even as they rise.

The poles of the earth have wandered

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The poles of the earth have wandered. The equator has apparently moved. The continents, perched on their plates, are thought to have ,been carried so very far and to be going in so many directions that it seems an act of almost pure hubris to assert that some landmark of our world is fixed at 73 degrees 57 minutes and 53 seconds west longitude and 40 degrees 51 minutes and 14 seconds north latitude-a temporary description, at any rate, as if for a boat on the sea. Nevertheless, these coordinates will, for what is generally described as the foreseeable future, bring you with absolute precision to the west apron of the George Washington Bridge. Nine A.M. A weekday morning. The traffic is some gross demonstration in particle physics. It bursts from its confining source, aimed at Chicago, Cheyenne, Sacramento, through the high dark roadcuts of the Palisades Sill. A young woman, on foot, is being pressed up against the rockwall by the wind booms of the big semis-Con Weimar Bulk Transportation, Fruehauf Long Ranger. Her face is zakelijke energie Nordic, her eyes dark brown and Latin-the bequests of grandparents from the extremes of Europe. She wears mountain boots, blue jeans. She carries a single-jack sledgehammer. What the truckers seem to notice, though, is her youth, her long bright Norwegian hair; and they flirt by air horn, driving needles into her ears. Her name is Karen Kleinspehn. She is a geologist, a graduate student nearing her Ph.D., and
Unconformity at Jedburgh, borders, by John Clerk, i787, courtesy Scottish Academic Press, Ltd., Edinburgh
there is little doubt in her mind that she and the road and the rock before her, and the big bridge and its awesome city-in fact, nearly the whole of the continental United States and Canada and Mexico to boot-are in stately manner moving in the direction of the trucks. She has not come here, however, to ponder global tectonics, although goodness knows she could, the sill being, in theory, a signature of the events that created the Atlantic. In the Triassic, when New Jersey and Mauretania were of a piece, the region is said to have begun literally to pull itself apart, straining to spread out, to break into great crustal blocks. Valleys in effect competed. One of them would open zakelijke energie vergelijken deep enough to admit ocean water, and so for some years would resemble the present Red Sea. The mantle below the crust-exciting and excited by these events-would send up fillings of fluid rock, and with such pressure behind them that they could intrude between horizontal layers of, say, shale and sandstone and lift the country a thousand feet. The intrusion could spread laterally through hundreds of square miles, becoming a broad new layer-a sill-within the country rock.